Category Archives: CBD: Jewelry District

The Neighborhood Economy Barometer: Starbucks

Starbucks on 47 West Flagler, in the Central Business District, not surprisingly has the least working hours of all others in Miami

I’ll have a double espresso and a glance at the neighborhood economies, please. Starbucks can provide more than an array of caffeine rich products. It can tell us a bit about the vitality of neighborhood economies. How? Hours of operation.

Starbucks and the Hood

Starbucks is an indicator of neighborhood economic activity because its operating hours, more often than not, coincide with that of its neighbors. For example, in South Beach, Sushi Samba on Lincoln Road and Pennsylvania closes at 2AM on Saturdays, a half hour after Starbucks across the street. Nearby Van Dyke Cafe opens its doors one hour after Starbucks, daily. In Brickell, Publix (in Mary Brickell Village) opens its doors a little over an hour after the nearby Starbucks, and PF Changs, right around the corner, closes at the same time as Starbucks on Saturdays and just one hour later on the weekdays. The correlations repeat wherever you go.  Continue reading

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Parkwest and Falcone Further Considered

The New Landlord of Parkwest

Under normal circumstances, Falcone’s plans for Parkwest would be astounding, but in Miami, normal circumstances are hard to come by. There are other projects that resemble Falcone’s vision for a city-within-a-city nearby: CitiSquare, Omni, and Midtown. In fact, his vision is simply the latest of Miami’s mega projects. This does not change the fact that his vision is unprecedented in scale and scope.

Since Lev Leviev and Shaya Boymelgreen acquired the Hank Sopher parcels beginning in 1999, they were the primary land owners in the area west of Bicentennial. Daniel Kodsi, around 2003 began his acquisition patterns in the area as well, and although busy developing Paramount Bay has yet to start Paramount Park. Today, the three real estate giants are no longer the landlords of Parkwest. The title is now Art Falcone’s. Let’s take a closer look at the area in question:

Map: The area highlighted in blue west of Bicentennial is where 85% of the Falcone acquisitions have taken place. North of the I-395 are two blue areas. The one south of 15th street is roughly the area allocated to Citi-Square, and the area north of it is the Omni. I have also repositioned the I-395 itself to illustrate, more or less, what the realignment of the over pass would look like. The current track of the I-395 is highlighted in green as the current FDOT plans call for the creation of park space along the current track once the project is completed.

With three mega-projects planned so near to one another, the prospects for the future of both Parkwest and the Media and Entertainment District are tantalizing big and forward-thinking. The trend seems to be the total overhauling of existing infrastructure in favor Miami 21 building guidelines; wider streets and avenues, new thoroughfares, more green space. The Falcone rendering even includes a rotunda and grand fountain on N.E. 1st Avenue.

Image: Rendering of the Parkwest plans from aerial vantage point

The plans seem to compliment the Parkwest’s newest towers well and are in the preliminary stages. However, with so many residential projects now stalled or canceled, it’s difficult for some to get enthusiastic about even this massive new development. If you have doubts about Falcone’s seriousness, then consider that other than strategically amassing this impressive Parkwest portfolio, in anticipation of executing to the best possible outcome, he and his team have traveled to

Europe, China, Dubai, Japan, India and across South America and the United States for ideas. Favorites include Tokyo’s Roppongi Hills, Paris’ Champs Elysées, Dallas’ Victory Park and Rio de Janeiro.”

and are collaborating with the likes Zyscovich and Elkus Manfredi. It’s clear that Falcone recognizes the historic opportunity for development he has in Parkwest. His international visits tell me that he and his team have high urbanism standards and want to apply the best urbanism ideas to their plans for the Magic City. Being in the heart of the Core, whatever happens in Parkwest will surely spill over an effect the CBD and M&E. Although early in the planning stages, owners at Parkwest’s newest condos must be rejoicing at the thought of Falcone’s plans, and they certainly shouldn’t be alone.

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Big Plans for Parkwest

Image: Rendering of the envisioned Parkwest

I have spent a considerable amount of time evaluating Parkwest’s prospects. Its location in the heart of the CBD, proximity to the proposed Museum Park, new ultra-luxurious condos, among other things, makes the neighborhood an important piece of Miami’s urban puzzle. Boca Raton builder Art Falcone, the latest billionaire in the Miami development mix, has, according to the latest Herald article (via-addictedtospace; skyscrapercity), quietly acquired 20 parcels in Kodsi and Boymelgreen-dominated Parkwest.

“the project has been the subject of intense planning and design for more than a year. Elements include offices and shops, hotels and meeting spaces, residences and entertainment and an educational component.”

The project’s plans are expected to coincide with the master plan being drawn up by Zyscovich’s firm. The project’s first phase plans are expected to be submitted to the city in the first quarter of next year.

More from BoB:

Identifying Signs of Urban Life: Parkwest’s Woes

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Skyline Gap a Reminder of Miami’s Possibilities

Image: The empty gap between Parkwest’s towers on the right and the Financial District to the left (Firefox users right click to view larger image).

In 2005, the Parkwest side was flat. Today, four towers are jutting into the sky. Most skyscraper enthusiasts have been envisioning this “Parkwest Wall” since the towers were announced, but now that they are a reality, there is a pronounced gap between Everglades on the Bay and Marina Blue.

Rendering: The Biscayne Wall as it would appear with Paramount Park and 600 Biscayne in the mix.

Four developments are planned within the gap. The Empire World Towers, Paramount Park, 600 Biscayne Building, and MDC Wolfson Campus building, would convert the area from a gap to the focal point of the skyline.

Rendering: The Oppenheim-designed MDC Wolfson building as it would look with 600 Biscayne and Paramount Park to the immediate north

Currently, there is no activity to speak of regarding any of these developments, but the plans are in place. It’s just another reminder of what could be. If the gap is filled with existing plans, Miami’s skyline, will for the first time appear seamless (no major gaps) from the MacArthur Causeway vantage point–that is until Island Gardens partially blocks the view.

Rendering: Empire World Towers

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Sacred Spaces in Downtown: Gesu Church and Rectory

The oldest of Downtown’s sacred spaces, the Gesu Church and Rectory is a beacon of faith in the heart of the CBD.

Image: Church pinnacle

Here’s why the Historic and Environmental Preservation Board considers it special:

“Located in downtown Miami, this imposing Mediterranean Revival style church houses the city’s oldest Roman Catholic parish. The cornerstone for the building was laid in 1920 on land donated by railroad magnate Henry M. Flagler, but construction did not begin until two years later. The new church was dedicated in 1925. Now restored to its original appearance, the design includes a massive arched portico under a landmark tower. Gesu Church and Rectory were listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974″

Image: N.E. 1st Avenue main entrance

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Under Utilization in the CBD: Part III (Un-designated Historic)

Continued from Part II of Under Utilization in the CBD

Historic but not Designated

In the last Under-Utilization post I discussed buildings that are designated as historic by the HEPB and the set of eight criteria used to officially distinguish them. It was noted that there are a few examples of impressive and well-known antiquated buildings that are not officially designated historic. In considering these un-designated but old structures, I will only refer to those that either are being well utilized or demonstrate favorable utilization/restoration conditions. Let’s consider some of them.

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The Seybold Building serves as the central hub for the Jewelry District and jewelry market in the region. Most of the major diamond and gemstone wholesalers are based in and around it. The building interior is finely appointed with marble floors and columns, but the attention to detail is mostly confined to the first floor (main gallery) where the main jewelry stores are situated. As important as the Seybold Building is to the local jewelry industry, the exterior sides are deteriorated and an eyesore. Despite its functional and historic significance the Seybold remains un-designated.

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  • Burdines (Macy’s) Building (1947)

The Burdines (Macy’s) Building is probably the poster child of an under-utilized historic structure. It is not designated as historic by the HEPB, since an application has not been filed. Still, since Federated converted the store to a Macy’s, there have been no real changes to the exterior or interior of the multi-story historic structure.

The Macy’s building is the largest of its kind in the region. The location and structure scale fits the profile of some of Federated’s most high-profile Macy’s locations throughout the country, yet it seems Federated is pushing for incentives to remain in place. The rumors have gone back and forth regarding FDS’ ultimatums, but Dana Nottingham indicated that despite reports to the contrary, FDS has played an active role in planning for the overhaul of Flagler and the Downtown area. If this is true, then it may mark a change in the under-utilized status quo. a Macy’s revamp would propel reuse in the direction of retail in the surrounding area.

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This Dade Commonwealth Building has undergone both the 40-year recertification and a renovation by the Titan Group. It is one of the most colorful additions to the portfolio of (un-designated) historic buildings in the CBD. The Building is not being used in any unorthodox way and houses a variety of small offices. Such a building is too big to house one retail entity such as is the trend in with historic structures along the Collins Avenue Shopping District. It does, however, fit in well with what is being done with residences in the Security Building and First National Bank Building.

There are inherit problems with such a change of use: lack of quality views, terraces, and high ceilings. One would have to incorporate innovative floor plans and respectable luxurious appointments to draw the necessary interest. Green features would make such a project even more interesting albeit pricey to re-develop. Still, there is a market of architecturally conscience buyers that might find such a development appealing.

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  • 22 N.E.1st Street – a.k.a. International Jewelry Center (1930)

This building’s interior was restored to a respectable degree. Marble was laid in patterns, floor to ceiling glass storefronts were installed to lure retailers, and the elevators were newly installed as well. The purpose was to lure jewelry related businesses away from the Seybold Building. The effort thus far has not materialized and most of the stores remain vacant. This building is situated adjacent to the Seybold and there have been rumors that its acquisition by the folks at Seybold is imminent. The purpose of such an acquisition would be to connect the two structures and enhance the main floor space at the Seybold (its important to note that this building is actually separated into two properties which have grandfathered-in the electrical and mechanical systems. The other side is known as the Flagler Jewelry Center)

The failure of the International Jewelry Center to gain tenants in the realm of the Jewelry industry brings to question the viability of such a narrow approach. Would it have been better to target retailers not necessarily associated with Jewelry? Was naming the building “International Jewelry Center” a deterrent for other non-jeweler tenants to come in? The reuse of this building has been a failure despite a serous interior renovation.

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  • Lerner Building (1925)

The Lerner building, situated next to the Macy’s building, is currently in a haunted-like state. The 1920’s era building has appealing marble facades. The reuse of such a building screams retail. This building does not, in my opinion, lend itself to much adaptability. It falls under the kind of structures that have been lending themselves to retail use in the Collins Avenue Shopping District except on a bit larger scale. Such a structure can house a high end Tiffany-like jewelry store or a high end retail boutique. Clearly, the market and on-the-ground conditions don’t foster such a reuse but if Federated gets it act together next door as they are doing with the Macy’s on Lincoln Road, then it’ll go a long way in making the Lerner property more desirable for reuse.

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  • Royalton Apartments (1923)

The Royalton Apartments are being renovated, as you can clearly see in the image above. Although I’m not sure as to what the use of the newly renovated structure will be, this is an ideal candidate for a boutique hotel. There are currently none in the downtown area although that can change as the George Washington of Boutique Hotels, Ian Schrager, owns the nearby Continental Riande Hotel on Biscayne Blvd., and has not yet disclosed his plans. Regardless of what the use of this building might be, the fact that it’s undergoing a renovation is a step in the right direction.

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  • 33 N.E. 1st Avenue (1925)

This building is easily over looked being sandwiched in between its neighbors. Situated on the same block as the First National Bank renovation, the 33 building is ideally scaled for retail or even restaurant use. It is symbolic of a few others in the CBD that are similarly scaled and aged. Miami 21’s T6 zoning of the area will probably pave the way for their demolition, but some represent interesting reuse potential.

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  • Biscayne Building (1926)

Since the Biscayne Building is situated on a corner, it makes a residential reuse more appealing–as is the case with Flagler First at the First National Bank Building. However, the scale of this building and the lack of unique architectural features leaves it vulnerable to scrapping. The lower portion of the structure has intricate concrete etchings but the top is lackluster. Among the least desirable of the un-designated historic buildings, it is currently being used by small professional firms.

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  • 101 S.E. 1st Street (1920)

Recently renovated, 101 S.E. 1st Street is a great candidate for retail reuse. It is situated conspicuously on a corner on S.E. 1st street and 1st Avenue. A Banana Republic or Kenneth Cole store comes to mind, but again, the CBD has no new retail precedent to fall and the lack of change at the Macy’s is not helping.

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Dade Federal Savings

Similar to the 101 building, the Dade Federal Saving Building is ideally located and scaled for retail. Everything that has been placed there has been an utter failure but incoming occupants in the Security Building and Flagler first developments might help to bolster its reuse desirability.

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Preserving the Historic Integrity of the CBD

As you can see there are a number of buildings in the CBD that are not protected by a historic designation but probably should be. Many would argue that the emphasis should be on demolishing the old in place of the new, but there are plenty of un-restorable under-utilized buildings in the CBD along with vacant space that would better suit new construction.

The aforementioned buildings should be maintained and reused in order to preserve the historic integrity of the CBD. There should be an open mind when it comes to considering adaptive reuse options for these buildings. New building and green technology should be incorporated wherever possible to make their reuse potential greater. The CBD’s historic nature lends itself to the evolution of an architecturally and historically multifaceted core if the cards are played right

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The Powers Behind the Jewelry District

Image: Blue, white, and canary yellow diamonds, rose and white gold, and platinum bracelets; all found in the Jewelry District. Just in case Fat Joe is in town and in a spending mood. From Elias Akar’s collection (Seybold Building)

The name “Haimov” (pronounced: Hi – Moff) brings to mind notions of an underground industry, movement, and capitalistic culture steeped in secrecy and familial bonds. One of diamonds, gold, and pearls, and run by international, broken-English speaking, multiple-luxury-car-owning, young and wealthy businessmen.

Haimov is one of two brothers that are Russian speaking Jewish jewelers. He’s in his early-thirties, looks younger, and is as shrewd and sharp a businessman as one can find. Haimov, it is said, was not handed anything but hustled his way to the top of the diamond and gold game. Yes, there is such a game in Miami and the money runs deep, and the wallets that hold the wealth are few. Haimov’s is one of the heaviest. The Herald has taken notice of him.

Image: Breitling with platinum diamond bezel and 5-row diamond tennis straps; found in Orogemma in the Seybold Building. I’m thinking Lil Wayne might dig this light show.

His inconspicuous store is situated more or less across the Seybold building. The unassuming almost somber building has two display windows showing off a constantly changing array of the most extravagant diamond and precious-stone jewelry fathomable. When entering his store, you must be buzzed in to the first chamber, identified by the camera, and buzzed into the second chamber, the third houses his treasure. It’s like arriving at a pirate’s treasure stash: his employees are sitting at tables busily sorting and weighing gold chains into small piles, multiple jeweler-clients carefully selecting gold pieces, and Haimov tirelessly closing one deal after another.

Image: 4 row blue diamond platinum tennis bracelet. Rick Ross might wanna rock this. Accar Unltd (Metromall)

Haimov is not just one of the powers behind the Jewelry District he is a force in the region. Most Cuban Link chains that you will ever see locally have his “H” stamp on it (Cuban Links are among the most popular gold chains for men). He specializes in the kind of jewels you see Hip Hop stars rocking in their music videos. For jewelers there are certain items that one must get from Haimov. His brother, Mark (VIP Jewelry), who he still does business with, but no longer under his wing, is also extremely successful. These guys are rash, fast talking, young and audacious hustlers turned mini-moguls. The antiquated heart of our Central Business District is where they maneuver and plot and base their far reaching influence from. Does the Herald article mean Haimov has finally emerged from the underground? Is he becoming Miami’s Jacob? Time will tell. There are many powers behind the Jewelry District. Haimov is not alone.

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Your Crummy Building Has Ad Potential

Are vacancies keeping you down?

Have you tried everything?

Don’t fire the leasing manager just yet. You can join the billboard building bandwagon today:

Tenants don’t need the windows. Hurry up. Spaces are limited.

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Under Utilization in the CBD: Part II (Historic Designations)

Image: The Related Group’s Loft II (left) and the historic Congress Building (right)

Continued from Part I

Historic Designations

Since the CBD is filled with antiquated structures, there are many that stand no hope of restoration and rehabilitation, but there are some examples of historic buildings with potential for adaptive reuse. I’ll defer to Chapter 23 of the City Code, which sets forth a set of 8 criteria for the designation of a historic structure/site worthy of preservation:

  1. Are associated in a significant way with the life of a person important in the past
  2. Are the site of a historic event with significant effect upon the community, city, state, or nation
  3. Exemplify the historic, cultural, political, economical, or social trends of the community
  4. Portray the environment in an era of history characterized by one or more distinctive architectural styles.
  5. Embody those distinguishing characteristics of an architectural style, or period, or method of construction
  6. Are an outstanding work of a prominent designer or builder
  7. Contain elements of design,detail, materials, or craftsmanship, of outstanding quality or which represent a significant innovation or adaptation to the Florida environment
  8. Have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history

At least one of the requisites must be met for designation consideration. Having said that, let’s take a look at some of the structures that have already been designated as historic by the HEPB, so that we can assess the current state and composition of preservation in the CBD:

Image: Chipped masonry in the Courthouse facade

Dade County Courthouse

Completed in 1928, the Dade County Courthouse is built in the Neo-Classical style. The structure is currently being rehabilitated. The masonry as you can see from the image above is chipped in several places. This remarkably designed granite-covered building is one of the City’s most recognizable historic structures.

Image: Ingraham Building (above)

Ingraham Building

Built in 1927 in the “Chicago School” style of architecture, the Ingraham Building is one of the most intricately designed and historically impacting buildings in the CBD. One feels a deep sense of history when looking at and entering the building. It was renovated in 1990 and is currently houses professional offices and wholesale jewelry and diamond businesses. It is a staple of vintage urbanism in the CBD.

Huntingtion Building

As distinctive as the Huntington Building is with its knight-sculpture adorned crown, it remains easily overlooked. The building was completed in 1925 during the land boom and resulted in the developer going bankrupt during the ensuing bust. The Huntington Building is situated directly across the vacant lot for the proposed Loft 4 development and is an architectural gem.

Image: Congress Building surrounded by the Lofts I and II, and Everglades on the Bay

Congress Building

Completed in 1926 in the Neo-Classical architectural style, the Congress Building is actually composed of two separate buildings united as one. Surrounded on almost all sides by new construction, the Congress building strikes one as evidence of the boom meshing with old urbanism in the CBD. The least impressive of the designated historic structures, the Congress Building still encapsulates a unique architectural style.

Image: Dupont Building facade and interior

Alfred I. Dupont Building

The A.I. Dupont Building was completed in 1937, and at the time, was symbolic of Miami’s rise out of the depression. Designed in the Moderne architectural style that was common during the era, the Dupont Building has an ornate and intricate interior that alludes to local history. Currently, the building is home to law firms, jewelry businesses, and an assortment of professional suites.

Image: Theater main entrance

Olympia Theater Building (Gusman Center for the Performing Arts)

The first air-conditioned building in Miami, the second atmospheric theater in the U.S, and a fine example of American movie palace architecture, the Olympia Theater Building (Gusman Center for the Performing Arts), stands out as one of Miami’s most special buildings. Here, the intricacy of the masonry is evident from all angles, and the interior is arresting. The Olympia is across the street from the Dupont and a block away from the Ingraham.

Image: The old Walgreens Building

Walgreens Building

When the Walgreens was originally built in 1936, City residents viewed it as a sign of recovery in the City. The 1.6 million dollar construction cost, at the time, was staggering. The building’s Streamline Modern style is still striking today. Owned by the Alono family, the 5-story building is home to La Epoca department store.

 

 

Image: Close up of the Security Building’s distinctive crown

 

Not Included Here

I left out a couple of historic buildings in the CBD (the Post Office building, First National Bank, and Security Building are covered in the Vintage Urbanism in the CBD post). The Freedom Tower stands apart from those designated as historic in the CBD interior since it is rather well protected and will be incorporated into the 600 Biscayne development. The City National Bank Building, although designated as historic, did not strike me as being particularly impressive.

Undesignated Historic Structures

There are also quite a few historic buildings (i.e.: Burdines-Macy’s Building, Seybold Building) that one would expect to be included on the designation list but are not, these will be the subject of the next installment as the question of adaptive reuse is considered and we finally quantify (approximate) the proportion of historic structures with reuse potential versus those under utilized structures that need to bit hit with a wrecking ball.

(To be continued…)

 

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Under-Utilization in the CBD (PART I)

Continued from the introduction.

The Central Business District of a metropolis is expected to have an abundance of modern high rises. In Miami, only the basic requisites of that are satisfied. The impressive high rises are mostly concentrated along Biscayne Boulevard, near the bay, and intermittently within the Central Business District’s interior. For the most part, the CBD of Miami is a compilation of early twentieth century-built, mostly under-utilized, structures–few of them with restoration potential. However, the CBD Interior is gradually being surrounded by new construction on all sides except west. Restorations are already taking place in the heart of the interior, and new developments have penetrated deeper than ever into it. The status quo is going to change, but how will it with so many under utilized structures in the way?

Image: 225 S.E. 2nd Street (built in 1945)

Understanding Under-Utilization

An under-utilized building is always held relative to its surroundings. It is described as such because the area around it is progressing in value and functionality. To have under utilized buildings implies something positive of the neighborhood. In the case of the CBD, the hundreds of millions being spent on construction along Biscayne Blvd. is positive. The CBD interior is held relative to it.

Chronological Development Map

As mentioned in the introductory post, I developed a chronological development map to visually indicate the age of Downtown’s structures. Miami-Dade County’s public property database was used as the basis for the structure-age data. The government data was missing, at times, and those properties were left uncolored. Other uncolored areas of the map include vacant parcels and parking lots which are not factored in.

Each color on the map represents the decade in which the highlighted structure was built. Here is the chronological map and color code legend:

  • Light blue -On or before 1919
  • Dark blue -1920’s
  • Light green -1930’s
  • Dark green -1940’s
  • Light yellow -1950’s
  • Dark yellow-1960’s
  • Orange -1970’s
  • Red -1980’s
  • Purple -1990’s

I had to cover a lot of temporal ground so don’t get caught up in all the color meanings just yet. Let’s focus on two two eras: pre-1920’s (light blue) and the 1920’s (dark blue). Now look at the map (above), which is zoomed into the heart of the Central Business District.

Image : 777 International Mall (built in 1947)

A Historic CBD

The map shows that a vast swath of the CBD was built prior to 1930. If you add the 1930’s (light green) and 1940’s (dark green) then you get a real understanding of just how old the buildings in the CBD are. This stands in stark contrast to the rampant new construction along Biscayne Boulevard. While the Biscayne Boulevard area is being built from the ground up, the interior was mostly built between the 1920’s and 1940’s. There is little in the way of a threshold. The disparity between the building-eras is as vast as wealth and poverty in Downtown.

The Composition and Uses of Under Utilization

It has been established that the CBD, whether officially designated or not, is a veritable historic district, yet the level of under-utilization has not been assessed. Let’s take a closer look at a couple of these buildings:

Image: 140 N. Miami Avenue (built 1925)

Image: 127 N.E. 1st Avenue (built in 1923)

Both properties were built in the 1920’s. Neither of them have any desirable architectural aspects worthy of restoration, yet both fulfill the livelihoods of the business owners and employees that operate from within them. So, is it fair to characterize them as under-utilized? Yes. A building will always have a use. Having one does not exempt it from under-utilization. In this case, both buildings are poorly maintained and do not contribute to enhancing property value in the periphery.

Let’s take a look at a building that really captures the essence of under-utilization in the CBD:

Image: 98 S.E. 1st Street (built in 1981)

This structure is an absolute waste of space. I found a corridor that ran along its interior. Take a look inside:

Image: Corridor leading to the courtyard

As you can see, the shops are closed. Although it’s not easy to see in this image, all of the hanging plants are dead and the maroon and gold drapes create a haunting atmosphere. At the end of the narrow corridor is an eerily colorful courtyard. The lot size is 39,063 square feet. We’re talking an absolute waste of space. Just about anything would better utilize this space than its current state.

The three examples I’ve shown are exemplary of the majority of structures within the CBD. Not exactly the sleek high rises we like to equate a CBD with. These structures maintain all sorts of small business. In them you can find colorful fabric, jewelry, luggage, electronics, shoes, and just about any random object you can imagine. Their presence gives downtown a bazaar-like feel.

Image: Don’t let the tacky colorful facade fool you. This building (76 E. Flagler Street) was built in 1928

These types of under-utilized structures represent the majority composition of the CBD interior. This stands in stark contrast to the Brickell and uptown areas where buildings were built comparatively recently. Miami, at heart, is old. Which begs the question:

What about Restoration?

As much as these under-utilized structures are a part of the City, they are equally, much of what holds it back. Many of them are vandalized, abandoned, poorly maintained, falling apart, and filthy. They are a direct compromise to the urbanism momentum gained during the boom. How many of these structures actually stand a chance to remain in Miami’s rapidly changing urban environment? What buildings have restoration potential? Fortunately, as we explore the restoration potential of these structures, there are some pleasant surprises in store.

(to be continued)

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